The diagnosis of infertility is made when conception does not occur after one year of trying to achieve pregnancy. In general, 10 to 15 percent of infertility is due to failure of ovulation. There are numerous causes of ovulatory problems including hormonal imbalances that limit the quality of egg production. Another common cause of infertility is blockage of the fallopian tubes. The condition may be caused by infection, inflammation, or scar tissue.

Fortunately, with the advances in medical and surgical therapies, many causes of infertility can be diagnosed and treated. A complete evaluation of the female reproductive organs can offer many insights into possible barriers to fertility. Complaints of painful periods or pain with sex may be due to endometriosis, pelvic infections, or adhesions from previous surgeries. The repair of the fallopian tubes after ectopic pregnancy or infection can be performed laparoscopically, as can treatment for polycystic ovaries, removal of ovarian cysts, and endometriosis.

The integrity of the uterus must be maintained to promote pregnancy. Hysteroscopy allows a panoramic view of the inside of the uterus to evaluate and treat possible causes of irregular bleeding, polyps, fibroids, and uterine myomas (my -oh-mahs).